greenLRAppendix E - Hazard Profile Data
Appendix G - Committee Meeting DocumentationgreenR

Appendices

2009 Marshall County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan


Alternative Mitigation Measures

This appendix documents the range of alternative mitigation measures considered by the Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee (HMPC) in the development of its mitigation strategy and its selection of final action programs for each participating community. This documentation supports the Federal requirement that the plan must Identify and analyze "a comprehensive range of specific mitigation actions and projects being considered to reduce the effects of each hazard, with particular emphasis on new and existing buildings and infrastructure" (44 CFR Section 201.6 (c)(3)(ii)). Included here are the following supporting documents:

  1. Committee Exercise - Alternative Mitigation Measures. This is the exercise administered by the planning team to the HMPC used to gather information on the priority issues to be addressed by the mitigation strategy, the recommended mitigation measures, and the recommended projects for potential funding under the FEMA hazard mitigation assistance programs.
  2. Types of Mitigation Measures. This list describes the comprehensive range of mitigation measures by program area type (Prevention, Protection, Public Outreach and Awareness, Natural Resources Protection, and Structural Projects types), which was one resource to the HMPC in completing the exercise listed above.
  3. Table of Alternative Mitigation Measures. This summary table identifies a measure as an action or project, whether new or existing buildings and infrastructure are affected, and the hazard effects that would be reduced by the measure.

The alternative measures described here are all intended to affect the built environment and thereby reduce loss of life and damages to buildings and infrastructure. Excluded from these alternatives are measures which might propose to establish disaster response procedures. The mitigation plan is not an emergency response, recovery, or preparedness plan. Consequently, all emergency services measures designed to prepare emergency operations plans, train or equip emergency personnel, programs to reduce mobile technological hazards, plans to counter terrorism and the like are not included in the range of alternatives considered for adoption in this plan. Rather, the purpose of these mitigation measures is to decrease the need for response and recovery through long-term mitigation actions and projects; the intent is not to increase capabilities for response to disasters and recovery from the effects..

According to recent FEMA guidance (Local Multi-Hazard Mitigation Planning Guidance, FEMA, July 1, 2008, page 59), "hazard mitigation is defined as any sustained action taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from hazards and their effects." All of the mitigation measures presented here have been evaluated for compatibility with this recent FEMA definition.


Committee Exercise

Alternative Hazard Mitigation Measures

Completed by:_____________________________ Community:______________________________

PART I: PRIORITY HAZARD MITIGATION ISSUES. List or briefly describe the most critical hazard issues within the community. These are the priority issues that the mitigation measures should address. You may describe general hazard conditions or specific problems:

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PART II: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MITIGATION MEASURES. What priority mitigation measures do you prefer for your community? Keep in mind the benefits in reducing economic losses, the priority (low, high), and the potential funding source (e.g., existing funds or FEMA mitigation assistance grants), Please place your recommendations in the spaces provided or continue on a separate sheet or the reverse side.

1. Prevention measures. Adopting and administering ordinances, regulations, and programs that manage the development of land and buildings to minimize risks of loss due to hazards.

Types: Comprehensive Plans, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Technical Studies, Capital Improvements Plans (CIP). Zoning, Open Space Preservation, Floodplain Management Regulations, Subdivision Regulations, Building and Technical Codes, Safe Room/ Shelter Requirements, Landscape Ordinances, Open Fire Regulations, Storm Water Regulations , Public Right-of-Way Maintenance, Dam Safety Management, Community Rating System (CRS) Program.

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2. Property Protection Measures. Protecting structures and their occupants and contents from the damaging effects of natural hazard occurrences, including retrofitting existing structures to increase their resistance to damage and exposure of occupants to harm; relocating vulnerable structures and occupants from hazard locations; and conversion of developed land to permanent open space through acquisition and demolition of existing structures.

Types: Relocation, Acquisition, Building Elevation, Flood Proofing, Building Retrofits

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3. Public Education and Awareness. Educating and informing the public about the risks of hazards and the techniques available to reduce threats to life and property.

Types: Map Information, Outreach Projects , Real Estate Disclosure, Library, Technical Assistance, Environmental Education

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4. Natural Resources Protection Measures. Preserving and restoring the beneficial functions of the natural environment to promote sustainable community development that balances the constraints of nature with the social and economic demands of the community.

Types: Wetlands Protection, Open Space Easements and Acquisitions, River/Stream Corridor Restoration and Protection, Urban Forestry Programs.

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5. Structural Projects Measures. Engineering structural modifications to natural systems and public infrastructure to reduce the potentially damaging impacts of a hazard on a community.

Types: Reservoirs, Levees/Floodwalls, Diversions, Channel Modifications, Dredging, Drainage Modifications, Storm Sewers, Dam Modifications, Ground Stabilization

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PART III: MITIGATION PROJECT RECOMMENDATIONS. Briefly describe any specific project(s) you would like funded through FEMA mitigation grants. Include a general estimate of cost and a description of the economic benefits.

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Types of Mitigation Measures

Prevention Measures. Prevention measures involve adopting and administering ordinances, regulations, programs, and plans that can influence the development of land and buildings to minimize risks of loss due to natural and man-made hazards.

Property Protection Measures. Property protection measures protect structures and their occupants and contents from the damaging effects of natural hazard occurrences, including retrofitting existing structures to increase their resistance to damage and exposure of occupants to harm; relocating vulnerable structures and occupants from hazard locations; and conversion of developed land to permanent open space through acquisition and demolition of existing structures.

Public Education and Awareness. Public education and awareness methods educate and inform the public about the risks of hazards and the techniques available to reduce threats to life and property.

Natural Resources Protection Measures. Natural resources protection measures preserve and restore the beneficial functions of the natural environment to promote sustainable community development that balances the constraints of nature with the social and economic demands of the community.

Structural Projects Measures. Structural projects measures are engineering structural modifications to natural systems and public infrastructure to reduce the potentially damaging impacts of a hazard on a community.

Reservoirs should only be used after a thorough watershed analysis that identifies the most appropriate location, and ensures that they would not cause flooding somewhere else. Because they are so expensive and usually involve more than one community, they are typically implemented with the help of state or federal agencies, such as the Army Corps of Engineers.


Table F-1. Alternative Types of Mitigation Measures

TYPES OF MITIGATION MEASURES

Action or Project
Affects New or Existing Buildings and Infrastructure
Tornadoes
Flooding
Severe Storms
Winter Storms/Freezes
Hurricanes
Droughts/Heat Waves
Earthquakes
Wildfires
Dam/Levee Failures
Landslides
Sinkholes
Man Made Hazards

PREVENTION MEASURES

Comprehensive Plans and Smart Growth

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Capital Improvements Plans

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Zoning and Land Development Controls

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Subdivision Regulations

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Building & Technical Codes

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flood Plain Management Programs

Action

Both

X

X

Storm Water Management Regulations

Action

Both

X

X

Dam Safety Management

Action

Both

X

X

Coastal Zone Management Regulations

Action

Both

X

X

X

Open Space Requirements

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

Open Burning Regulations

Action

Both

X

Safe Room/Shelter Requirements

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

Public Right-of-Way Maintenance Regulations

Action

Both

X

X

X

Critical Facilities Assessments

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Geographic Information Systems

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Technology Programs

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

Planning Studies

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Acquisitions Projects

Project

Existing

X

X

X

X

Building Elevations

Project

Existing

X

Flood Proofing

Project

Existing

X

Building Retrofits

Project

Existing

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Building Relocations

Project

Existing

X

X

X

X

Critical Facilities Protection

Project

Existing

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Emergency Power Generation

Project

Both

X

X

X

X

X

Sewer Backup Protection

Project

Both

X

PUBLIC EDUCATION AND AWARENESS MEASURES

Community Hazard Mitigation Plan Distribution

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Flood Map Information

Action

Both

X

X

Outreach Projects

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Hazard Insurance Awareness

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Real Estate Disclosure

Action

Both

X

Library

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Technical Assistance

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Education Programs

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Mass Media Relations

Action

Both

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

NOAA Weather Radio Programs

Action

Existing

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

NATURAL RESOURCES PROTECTION MEASURES

Wetlands Protection

Both

Both

X

X

X

Open Space Easements and Acquisitions

Both

Both

X

X

X

X

X

River/Stream Corridor Restoration and Protection

Both

Both

X

Urban Forestry Programs

Both

Both

X

Water Resources Conservation Programs

Action

Dune and Beach Restoration

Project

Both

X

X

STRUCTURAL MEASURES

Reservoirs

Project

Both

X

Levees/Floodwalls

Project

Both

X

X

Diversions

Project

Both

X

Channel Modifications

Project

Both

X

Dredging

Project

Both

X

Drainage Modifications

Project

Both

X

Storm Sewers

Project

Both

X

Drainage System Maintenance

Project

Both

X

X

Dam Modifications

Project

Both

X

X

Ground Stabilization

Project

Both

X

X

Community Shelter/Safe Room Construction

Project

Both

X

X

X

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